Difference Between Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis

Difference Between Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis

Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis
Glycolysis is a catabolic pathway, where glucose is broken down into pyruvate. Gluconeogenesis is the anabolic pathway, where pyruvate is converted to glucose.
The set of reactions that convert glucose into two pyruvate molecules is known as glycolysis. Gluconeogenesis is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources like glycerol, amino acids, and lactate.
The raw material of glycolysis is glucose. The raw materials of gluconeogenesis are lactate, and amino acids like alanine and glycerol.
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells. Gluconeogenesis occurs in both mitochondria and cytoplasm.
Glycolysis occurs in almost all the cells in the body. Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver and kidney.
Glycolysis is an exergonic reaction where two ATPs are produced. Gluconeogenesis is an endergonic reaction where six ATPs are utilized per glucose molecule.
This process takes place when the cell energy is low. This process takes place when the cell energy is high.
It is a 10-step reversible reaction. It is an 11-step reaction that involves 2 irreversible reactions.


  • The process of converting simple non-sugar precursors (lactic acid, glycerol, glycogenic amino acids, etc.) to sugar (glucose or glycogen). 
  • Gluconeogenesis is not a simple reversal of glycolysis. 
  • Although gluconeogenesis from pyruvate utilizes the reverse of the seven-step quasi-equilibrium reaction in glycolysis, it must also utilize enzymatic reactions that do not occur in the other four steps of glycolysis, bypassing the irreversible process of glycolysis. three responses. 
  • Gluconeogenesis ensures that the body's blood sugar levels are at normal levels. 
  • The main organ of gluconeogenesis is the liver.


Glycolysis :

  • Glycolysis is the process of breaking down glucose or glycogen into lactic acid under conditions of insufficient oxygen, accompanied by the production of a small amount of ATP. 
  • This process is carried out in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen, and each reaction step is basically catalyzed by a specific enzyme. 
  • Under hypoxic conditions, pyruvate can be catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase to receive hydrogen from triose phosphate and be reduced to lactate. 
  • The oxidative decomposition of sugar under aerobic conditions is called aerobic oxidation of sugar. 
  • Pyruvate can be further oxidized and decomposed to form acetyl CoA and enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle to generate CO2 and H2O. 
  • The aerobic oxidation of sugar and glycolysis are exactly the same in many steps in the initial stage, but after the decomposition into pyruvate, they differ due to different oxygen supply conditions. 
  • Glycolysis consists of a total of 10 sequential steps, all catalyzed by corresponding enzymes.

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